The vaccine Remdesivir has been under the spotlight as a potential treatment for the severe cases of novel coronavirus disease. All around the globe, it is recommended as one of the four potential lines of treatment being researched in the Solidarity preliminaries under the aegis of the World Health Organization (WHO).
Although, the recent investigations have guaranteed the promising outcomes of the vaccine still it needs to get approval in any one country before being used in the treatment of COVID-19.
What is Remdesivir?
It is a drug that was developed by the US-based biotechnology organization in 2014 to treat the Ebola patients due to its antiviral and antibacterial properties. It was used to treat the patients of MERS and SARS, both belonging to the members of the Coronavirus family. However, the researchers are saying that from then, it’s been proving effective till now.
AS its genetic material, Coronavirus has a single strand RNA. When SARS-COV-2 enters the human cell this virus multiplies/replicates itself due to the presence of an enzyme called RdRP.
Irresistible illness master Dr Tanu Singhal stated, “When the infection inundated itself around a human cell, it infused its RNA inside the cell. RdRp chemical causes viral replication. Remdesivir represses the chemical and stops further replication.
According to Dr Tanu Singhal who is an infectious disease expert stated that when the virus inundates itself around a human cell, it infuses its RNA inside the cell. The RdRp enzyme causes viral replication. Remdesivir inhibits the enzyme and stops further replication.
What have studies found?
In the New England Journal of Medicine, a small study was conducted on April 10 in which the drug Remdesivir was tested on 61 patients in the USA, Canada, Europe, and Japan.
These patents were critically sick with low oxygen levels and were given Remdesivir.
Each & every patient was advised for a 10-day course of Remdesivir in 200 mg on the 1st day followed by 100 mg for the next 90- days. Out of them, 53 patients were considered. The study confirmed the medical improvement in 68% of the cases, 47% of patients could be released after treatment, and over half of the patients (17 of 30) not, at this point required mechanical ventilator support.
The study analyzed that the clinical improvement was less visible in the patients who were on the ventilators and even among the older individuals. Despite getting the treatment of Remdesivir, 7 people still passed away.
Another examination, published on April 13 in the Journal of Biological Chemistry by analysts from the University of Alberta, revealed promising outcomes however not in patients. The specialists conducted research in the laboratory which proved that this medicine was able to prevent the virus from replicating.
The lab research also focused on the enzyme that is responsible for causing the infection’s replication in the body. Matthias Götte, the chairman of medical microbiology and immunology at the University of Alberta, stated that Remdesivir plays with the infection by emulating its building blocks.
“These coronavirus polymerases (RdRP catalysts portrayed above) are messy and they get easily fooled, so the inhibitor gets consolidated ordinarily and the infection can not repeat itself anymore,” Götte said in an announcement.
How Promising are these Results?
Till now, no study has been quite substantial enough which can be reliable or trustworthy completely. The study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, examined 53 patients who represented a very small analysis to reach any definitive conclusions. Also, 13% of the patients examined passed away.
This study had no control and supervision body, which led to another group of patients who have not been advised the drug, to contrast the results of treatment with and without remdesivir. Unless such trials are conducted, the effect of the drug remains a grey zone.
The investigation’s lead creator, Jonathan D Grein, executive of the hospital the study of disease transmission, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, said “no authoritative ends can be drawn from this information” however he urged additional controlled preliminaries to be conducted to approve the treatment capability of remdesivir.
Dr. Harshad Limaye of the inside medication division in Mumbai’s Nanavati Hospital, an assigned COVID-19 Emergency Hospital, said remdesivir didn’t show incredible outcomes with Ebola either. “In any case, the Ebola and coronavirus are different from each other. We should wait for the trials to prove the efficacy of the drug for COVID-19,” Dr Limaye said.
What is India’s Stand on Remdesivir?
The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has said it can consider utilizing the medication if the local manufacturing Cos. are happy to produce it. Remdesivir is presently not accessible in India. The ICMR plans to sit tight and watch for the consequences of WHO’s Solidarity preliminaries to make an evaluation of the adequacy of remdesivir for COVID-19 treatment.
The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has said it can consider using the drug if local manufacturers are willing to procure it. (File Photo: Prashant Nadkar)
Presently, there are around six preliminaries and studies being conducted across the world for remdesivir. China has started two clinical preliminaries using remdesivir in different areas of the Hubei region, the worst-hit province with COVID-19.
One study will concentrate on critically sick patients with low oxygen levels. The other examination will concentrate on patients with moderate side effects. In the US, the National Institutes of Health has begun a stage II randomized placebo-controlled controlled testing on adult patients. In France, the INSERM Research Institute is leading an examination to assess the potential treatments for COVID-19; these incorporate remdesivir too.
Gilead is likewise running a stage III preliminary in the US, Asia, and Europe.
What are the different lines of Treatment Being Investigated?
Hydroxychloroquine, an anti-malarial drug, is experiencing numerous preliminaries to evaluate if it can be utilized to treat serious COVID-19 cases. It works by decreasing the acidity level in parts of the cell where the virus is present, consequently restraining it from further growth and spreading.
Try not to miss from Explained | To use malaria drug hydroxychloroquine, or not to again, Ritonavir and Lopinavir are the two antiviral medications used for the treatment of HIV. These two work by repressing the virus’s RNA. In particular, they target the enzyme that enables the infection to part proteins.
These two medications are being used in India and in a few more countries for critically sick patients. In HIV patients, these two antiviral medications cooperate to decrease the viral burden in the blood. Their utilization in COVID-19 patients gives similar results. “In any case, up until now, it has not demonstrated incredible achievement in viral suppression,” said Dr. Pravin Amle, an infectious disease expert. He depends on the anti-infection azithromycin as his first choice.
In Wuhan, a clinical preliminary conducted on 199 patients distributed in The New England Journal of Medicine on March 18 didn’t locate a clinical contrast between patients who were given Ritonavir-Lopinavir and those not given this combination of drugs.
Countries that granted Remdesivir approval as a Covid-19 treatment:
On 1st May 2020, the US has allowed the experimental antiviral drug Remdesivir for emergency use as a Covid-19 treatment. The studies have found this drug helps patients to recover faster.
It also gets approval from the Japanese health authorities on 7th May for using it against the novel coronavirus,
According to “Dr. Merdad Parsey ”, who is the chief medical officer of Gilead Sciences said that the approval of the use of Remdesivir by Japanese Gov. represents the urgent need to treat the critically sick patients in Japan. It is a symbolic representation of the exceptional conditions caused by this pandemic.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted remdesivir Emergency Use Authorization, implying that it isn’t FDA-affirmed however is allowed to be used only under the prohibition and monitoring of the strict guidelines of the doctors in hospitals treating patients with severe COVID-19.